About the Nine
Ways of Prayer
The following was
written by an anonymous Bolognese author, sometime between A.D. 1260 and
A.D. 1288, whose source of information was, among other followers of St.
Dominic, Sister Cecilia of Bologna's Monastery of St. Agnes. Sister Cecilia
had been given the habit by St. Dominic himself. "The Nine Ways of Prayer"
has been sometimes printed as a supplement to "The Life of St. Dominic" by
Theodoric of Apoldia, though they aren't an actual part of that work.
The Nine Ways
of St. Dominic
Holy teachers like
Augustine, Ambrose, Gregory, Hilary, Isidore, John Chrysostom, John Damascene,
Bernard, and other saintly Greek and Latin doctors have discoursed on prayer
at great length. They have encouraged and described it, pointed out its necessity
and value, explained the method, the dispositions which are required, and
the impediments which stand in its way. In learned books, the glorious and
venerable doctor, Brother Thomas Aquinas, and Albert, of the Order of Preachers,
as well as William in his treatise on the virtues, have considered admirably
and in a holy, devout, and beautiful manner that form of prayer in which
the soul makes use of the members of the body to raise itself more devoutly
to God. In this way the soul, in moving the body, is moved by it. At times
it becomes rapt in ecstasy as was Saint Paul, or is caught up in a rapture
of the spirit like the prophet David. Saint Dominic often prayed in this
way, and it is fitting that we say something of his method.
Certainly many saints of both the Old and New Testament are known to have
prayed like this at times. Such a method serves to enkindle devotion by the
alternate action of soul upon body and body upon soul. Prayer of this kind
would cause Saint Dominic to be bathed in tears, and would arouse the fervor
of his holy will to such intensity that his bodily members could not be
restrained from manifesting his devotion by certain signs. As a result, the
spirit of the supplicant was sometimes raised up during its entreaties,
petitions, and thanksgivings.
The following, then, are the special modes of prayer, besides those very
devout and customary forms, which Saint Dominic used during the celebration
of Mass and the praying of the psalmody. In choir or along the road, he was
often seen lifted suddenly out of himself and raised up with God and the
The First Way of Prayer
first way of prayer was to humble himself before the altar as if Christ,
signified by the altar, were truly and personally present and not in symbol
alone. He would say with Judith: "O Lord, God, the prayer of the humble and
the meek hath always pleased Thee [Judith 9:16]. "It was through humility
that the Canaanite woman and the prodigal son obtained what they desired;
as for me, "I am not worthy that Thou shouldst come under my roof" [Matthew
8:8] for "I have been humbled before you exceedingly, O Lord [Psalm 118:107]."
In this way our holy father, standing erect, bowed his head and humbly
considering Christ, his Head, compared his lowliness with the excellence
of Christ. He then gave himself completely in showing his veneration. The
brethren were taught to do this whenever they passed before the humiliation
of the Crucified One in order that Christ, so greatly humbled for us, might
see us humbled before his majesty. And he commanded the friars to humble
themselves in this way before the entire Trinity whenever they chanted solemnly:
"Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit." In this
manner of profoundly inclining his head, as shown in the drawing, Saint Dominic
began his prayer.
The Second Way of Prayer
Saint Dominic used
to pray by throwing himself outstretched upon the ground, lying on his face.
He would feel great remorse in his heart and call to mind those words of
the Gospel, saying sometimes in a voice loud enough to be heard: "O God,
be merciful to me, a sinner." [Luke 18:13] With devotion and reverence he
repeated that verse of David: "I am he that has sinned, I have done wickedly."
[II Kings 24:17]. Then he would weep and groan vehemently and say: "I am
not worthy to see the heights of heaven because of the greatness of my iniquity,
for I have aroused thy anger and done what is evil in thy sight." From the
psalm: "Deus auribus nostris audivimus" he said fervently and devoutly: "For
our soul is cast down to the dust, our belly is flat on the earth!" [Psalm
43:25]. To this he would add: "My soul is prostrate in the dust; quicken
Thou me according to Thy word" [Psalm 118:25].
Wishing to teach the brethren to pray reverently, he would sometimes say
to them: When those devout Magi entered the dwelling they found the child
with Mary, his mother, and falling down they worshipped him. There is no
doubt that we too have found the God-Man with Mary, his handmaid. "Come,
let us adore and fall down in prostration before God, and let us weep before
God, and let us weep before the Lord that made us" [Psalm 94:61]. He would
also exhort the young men, and say to them: If you cannot weep for your own
sins because you have none, remember that there are many sinners who can
be disposed for mercy and charity. It was for these that the prophets lamented;
and when Jesus saw them, he wept bitterly. The holy David also wept as he
said: "I beheld the transgressors and began to grieve" [Psalm 118:158].
The Third Way of Prayer
At the end of the
prayer which has just been described, Saint Dominic would rise from the ground
and give himself the discipline with an iron chain, saying, "Thy discipline
has corrected me unto the end" [Psalm 17:36]. This is why the Order decreed,
in memory of his example, that all the brethren should receive the discipline
with wooden switches upon their shoulders as they were bowing down in worship
and reciting the psalm "Miserere" [Psalm 50] or "De Profundis" [Psalm
129] after Compline on ferial days. This is performed for their own faults
or for those of others whose alms they receive and rely upon. No matter how
sinless he may be, no one is to desist from this holy example which is shown
in the drawing.
The Fourth Way of Prayer
After this, Saint
Dominic would remain before the altar or in the chapter room with his gaze
fixed on the Crucified One, looking upon Him with perfect attention. He
genuflected frequently, again and again. He would continue sometimes from
after Compline until midnight, now rising, now kneeling again, like the apostle
Saint James, or the leper of the gospel who said on bended knee: "Lord, if
Thou wilt, thou canst make me clean" [Matthew. 8:2]. He was like Saint Stephen
who knelt and called out with a loud cry: "Lord, do not lay this sin against
them" [Acts 7:60]. Thus there was formed in our holy father, Saint Dominic,
a great confidence in God's mercy towards himself, all sinners, and for the
perseverance of the younger brethren whom he sent forth to preach to souls.
Sometimes he could not even restrain his voice, and the friars would hear
him murmuring: "Unto Thee will I cry, O Lord: O my God, be not Thou silent
to me: lest if thou be silent to me, I become like them that go down into
the pit" [Psalm 27:1] and comparable phrases from the Sacred Scripture.
At other times, however, he spoke within himself and his voice could not
be heard. He would remain in genuflection for a long while, rapt in spirit;
on occasion, while in this position, it appeared from his face that his mind
had penetrated heaven and soon he reflected an intense joy as he wiped away
the flowing tears. He was in a stage of longing and anticipation like a thirsty
man who has reached a spring, and like a traveler who is at last approaching
his homeland. Then he would become more absorbed and ardent as he moved in
an agile manner but with great grace, now arising, now genuflecting. He was
so accustomed to bend his knees to God in this way that when he traveled,
in the inns after a weary journey, or along the wayside while his companions
rested or slept, he would return to these genuflections, his own intimate
and personal form of worship. This way of prayer he taught his brethren more
by example than by words.
The Fifth Way of Prayer
When he was in
the convent, our holy father Dominic would sometimes remain before the altar,
standing erect without supporting himself or leaning upon anything. Often
his hands would be extended before his breast in the manner of an open book;
he would stand with great reverence and devotion as if reading in the very
presence of God. Deep in prayer, he appeared to be meditating upon the words
of God, and he seemed to repeat them to himself in a sweet voice. He regularly
prayed in this way for it was Our Lord's manner as Saint Luke tells us: ".
. . according to his custom he entered the synagogue on the Sabbath and began
to read" [Luke 4:16]. The psalmist also tells us that "Phinees stood up and
prayed, and the slaughter ceased" [Psalm 105:30].
He would sometimes join his hands, clasping them firmly together before eyes
filled with tears and restrain himself. At other times he would raise his
hands to his shoulders as the priest does at Mass. He appeared then to be
listening carefully as if to hear something spoken from the altar. If one
had seen his great devotion as he stood erect and prayed, he would certainly
have thought that he was observing a prophet, first speaking with an angel
or with God himself, then listening, then silently thinking of those things
which had been revealed to him.
On a journey he would secretly steal away at the time for prayer and, standing,
would immediately raise his mind to heaven. One would then have heard him
speaking sweetly and with supreme delight some loving words from his heart
and from the riches of Holy Scripture which he seemed to draw from the fountains
of the Savior. The friars were very much moved by the sight of their father
and master praying in this manner. Thus, having become more fervent, they
were instructed in the way of reverent and constant prayer: "Behold as the
eyes of servants are on the hands of their masters, as the eyes of the handmaid
are on the hands of her mistress . . ." [Psalm 122:2].
The Sixth Way of Prayer
Our holy father,
Saint Dominic, was also seen to pray standing erect with his hands and arms
outstretched forcefully in the form of a cross. He prayed in this way when
God, through his supplications, raised to life the boy Napoleon in the sacristy
of the Church of Saint Sixtus in Rome, and when he was raised from the ground
at the celebration of Mass, as the good and holy Sister Cecilia, who was
present with many other people and saw him, narrates. He was like Elias who
stretched himself out and lay upon the widow's son when he raised him to
In a similar manner he prayed near Toulouse when he delivered the group of
English pilgrims from danger of drowning in the river. Our Lord prayed thus
while hanging on the cross, that is, with his hands and arms extended and
"with a loud cry and tears ... he was heard because of his reverent submission"
Nor did the holy man Dominic resort to this manner of praying unless he was
inspired by God to know that something great and marvelous was to come about
through the power of his prayer. Although he did not forbid the brethren
to pray in this way, neither did he encourage them to do so. We do not know
what he said when he stood with his hands and arms extended in the form of
a cross and raised the boy to life. Perhaps it was those words of Elias:
"O Lord, my God, let the soul of this child, I beseech thee, return into
his body" [III Kings 17:21]. He certainly followed the prophet's exterior
manner in his prayers on that occasion. The friars and sisters, however,
as well as the nobles and cardinals, and all others present were so struck
by this most unusual and astonishing way of prayer that they failed to remember
the words he spoke. Afterwards, they did not feel free to ask Dominic about
these matters because this holy and remarkable man inspired in them a great
sense of awe and reverence by reason of the miracle.
In a grave and mature manner, he would slowly pronounce the words in the
Psalter which mention this way of prayer. He used to say attentively: "O
Lord, the God of my salvation: I have cried in the day and in the night before
Thee," as far as that verse "All the day I have cried to Thee, O Lord: I
stretched out my hands to Thee" [Psalm 87:2-10]. Then he would add: "Hear,
O Lord, my prayer give ear to my supplication in Thy truth . . ." He would
continue the prayer to these words: "I stretched forth my hands to Thee .
. . Hear me speedily, O Lord" [Psalm 142:1-7].
This example of our father's prayer would help devout souls to appreciate
more easily his great zeal and wisdom in praying thus. This is true whether,
in doing so, he wished to move God in some wonderful manner through his prayer
or whether he felt through some interior inspiration that God was to move
him to seek some singular grace for himself or his neighbor. He then shone
with the spiritual insight of David, the ardor of Elias, the charity of Christ,
and with a profound devotion, as the drawing serves to indicate.
The Seventh Way of Prayer
he was often seen to reach towards heaven like an arrow which has been shot
from a taut bow straight upwards into the sky. He would stand with hands
outstretched above his head and joined together, or at times slightly separated
as if about to receive something from heaven. One would believe that he was
receiving an increase of grace and in this rapture of spirit was asking God
for the gifts of the Holy Spirit for the Order he had founded.
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Eual Seventh Way of Prayer
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Nihe Seventh Way of Prayer
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