In the end,
scrupulosity is the condition of not trusting in the Mercy of Christ.
It's a plaguing sense of being "bad" or "guilty" or "unforgiven." It's
a sort of obssessive-compulsive disorder that causes people to doubt
the efficacy of the Sacrament of Confession or think they didn't
receive the Sacrament properly, perhaps that they forgot to tell the
something and that this will damn them or some such. Suffering from a
case of the scruples can be excruciating. And such suffering is so uneceesary.
Below is a guide for folks who have this condition. It was
written first by a Redemptorist priest, Father Don Miller, some thirty
years ago, and has been amended by Father Thomas Santa. I hope it helps
you if you're torturing yourself with thoughts rooted in scrupulosity.
1. You shall not repeat a sin in confession
when it has been confessed in a previous confession, even when there is
a doubt that it was confessed or a doubt that it was confessed in a
sufficiently adequate and complete way.
Almost every scrupulous person experiences anxiety and doubt about past
sins. Older people have a natural tendency to reflect back on their
younger years, and in doing so, often remember something that triggers
a doubt. More often than not, such a doubt has to do with impure
thoughts, desires, or actions. As a result of the combination of
remembering and doubting, it is not unusual that the scrupulous person
then experiences great anxiety and is robbed of a sense of peace. This
is why this first commandment is so very important: Do not go back over
past sins and do not repeat the confession of them! Such an exercise is
not at all helpful and must be resisted.
2. You shall not
confess doubtful sins in confession, but only sins that are clear and
Of all of the correspondence that I receive, I would say that this
issue is the one that occurs most often. "What does a person do if they
are not sure that they committed a sin?" For this reason, this is a
very important commandment to remember because it clearly states the
truth: Doubtful sins don't count! There is no need to confess something
that does not clearly and certainly exist. In fact, it is harmful to
one's self to confess that which is doubtful. Again, such a practice is
not at all helpful and must be resisted.
Now I can almost hear some of you saying, "I am not sure if I doubt
that I sinned or if I am just trying to fool myself to believe that I
am doubting that I sinned." This thought in itself demonstrates that
you are in fact doubting and so, therefore, the commandment comes into
play: You shall not confess doubtful sins.
3. You shall not
repeat your penance after confession or any of the words of your
penance because you feel or think that you had distractions or may not
have said the words properly.
The temptation to repeat prayers is a constant one for the scrupulous.
You may feel that you need to repeat them, again and again, until you
"get them right." Unfortunately, such perfectionism is never satisfied,
and so you will remain in a constant state of anxiety and fear. This
situation becomes all the more distressing because many times the
scrupulous person will argue that, because they feel anxious or
fearful, that must be a sign that they did not correctly perform their
penance. "If I did it right I would be peaceful."
This commandment is, therefore, very important because it is the only
solution to the dilemma in which you find yourself. Father Miller is
right: Do not repeat your penance.
4. You shall not
worry about breaking your fast before receiving communion, unless you
actually put food and drink in your mouth and swallow it in the same
way that a person does when eating a meal.
Much of the anxiety that is present in reference to breaking your fast
before communion centers around extraneous matters. It is helpful to
remember that lipstick is not food. Snowflakes are not food. You cannot
break you fast unless you deliberately choose to eat in the same way
that you would choose to eat a meal or a snack. The commandment clearly
suggests that no hesitations are allowed regarding accidental
swallowing of things that are not considered food.
5. You shall not
hesitate to look at any crucifix or at any statue in
church or at home or anywhere else because you may get bad thoughts in
your mind and imagination. If such thoughts occur, they carry no sin
Although this commandment deals with a situation that is not
necessarily a problem for all scrupulous persons, it is nevertheless a
real burden for some. If you try to avoid the problem by not looking,
the problem will tend to become more severe. It is a much better choice
to meet the problem head on. Thoughts and imaginations that occur in
this situation are simply not sinful. One should try and confront fear,
not give in to it.
6. You shall not
consider yourself guilty of bad thoughts, desires, or feelings, unless
you can honestly swear before the all-truthful God that you remember
clearly and certainly consenting to them.
This is a very important commandment. The whole area of impure thoughts
and desires causes scrupulous people much anxiety. Unfortunately,
scrupulous persons often believe that the very appearance of thoughts
or desires in their thoughts or imagination means that they have
committed a sin. This is most certainly not the case. In fact, it is
humanly impossible for us to have absolute control over our interior
faculties. Such thoughts and images are going to happen, whether we
like them or not.
Because we simply do not have absolute control over our interior
faculties, the emphasis of the commandment is on clear and certain
consent. Only a free consent, that is clear and certain, constitutes a
sin. You can not accidentally or involuntarily be guilty of sin.
7. You shall not
disobey your confessor when he tells you never to make another general
confession of past sins already confessed.
It is not unusual for the scrupulous person to desire to make "just one
more general confession." The desire to do so is prompted by a wish for
inner peace and calm. However, the exact opposite is more often than
not a result. The anxiety generated by the process of examination and
preparation, the actual confession, and then the review of the
confession, produces no inner peace or calm. There always has to be
"just one more."
The wisdom of this commandment is found in two simple words: No more!
If the scrupulous person will follow the advice of their confessor on
this matter, they will have a chance of finding peace. Otherwise, there
is only turmoil, anxiety, and stress.
8. You shall believe
and act accordingly, so that whenever you are in doubt as to whether or
not you are obliged to do or not to do something, you can take it for
certain that you are not obligated.
This commandment underlines the basic moral principle that doubtful
laws or obligations do not bind the scrupulous conscience. The great
saint, and our patron, Saint Alphonsus Liguori teaches: "When there
exists in a scrupulous person the habitual will not to offend God, it
is certain that he or she acts in doubt and there is no sin...."
I find it very reassuring to read the words of Saint Alphonsus in
reference to this matter. It is good to know that the teaching of our
very wise patron and model, a saint whom you might recall also suffered
greatly from scrupulosity, is so clear and straightforward. "There is
no sin," are the words we need to hear and recall as often as
9. If, before you
perform or omit an act, you are doubtful whether or not it is sinful
for you, you shall assume as certain that it is not sinful and shall
proceed to act without any dread of sin whatever.
This commandment is also supported by Saint Alphonsus. In his advice to
confessors he says, "Scrupulous persons tend to fear that everything
they do is sinful. The confessor should command them to act without
restraint and overcome their anxiety. He should tell them that their
first obligation is to conquer their scruples. They should act against
their groundless fears. The confessor may command the scrupulous to
conquer their anxiety and disregard it by freely doing whatever it
tells them not to do. The confessor may assure the penitent the he or
she need never confess such a thing."
10. You shall put
your total trust in Jesus Christ, knowing that he loves you as only God
can love, and that he will never allow you to lose your soul.
We often reflected in the pages of SA that the scrupulous person, for
one reason or another, has a negative image of God. A negative image of
God does not inspire trust but rather fear and dread. In Jesus Christ
we are able to glimpse the true image of God: a God who loves and heals
and saves. It is in that God, the God revealed to us by Jesus, that we
can and should place all of our trust.
It may very well be helpful to review some scripture passages which may
help you change your image of God from a negative to a positive image.
May I suggest that you spend some time reviewing the prophet Isaiah,
chapter 43, verses 1-4. In this passage you will hear the words of the
Lord speaking to you and reminding you "that you are precious in my
eyes." You might follow up Isaiah with a reading from Paul's letter to
the Romans, chapter 8, verses 26-39. In this reading we are assured
that the Holy Spirit helps us in our weakness. You might finally end
your reflection by reading from the first letter of the Apostle John,
chapter 4, verses 7-19. In this reading John reminds us that love
consists in knowing, "not that we have loved God but that God has loved
I hope that this familiar review of the Ten Commandments for the
Scrupulous has proven helpful. I might suggest that you keep these
commandments close by, especially as a point of reference when you feel
anxious or distressed. It is very helpful at such moments to have the
calm voice of reason speaking to us.