The fourth Sunday
of Lent is rather unique; like the third Sunday of Advent ("Gaudete Sunday"),
the fourth Sunday of Lent is a break in an otherwise penitential season.
The vestments for this day will be rose, as they are on Gaudete Sunday in
Advent, and flowers may adorn the Altar. This day is called "Laetare Sunday"
(also "Rose Sunday" ), and takes its name from the opening words of the Mass,
the Introit's "Laetare, Jerusalem":
et conventum facite omnes qui diligitis eam: gaudete cum laetitia, qui in
tristitia fuistis: ut exsultetis, et satiemini ab uberibus consolationis
vestrae. (Psalm) Laetatus sum in his, quae dicta sunt mihi: in domum Domini
ibimus. Gloria Patri.
Rejoice, O Jerusalem:
and come together all you that love her: rejoice with joy, you that have
been in sorrow: that you may exult, and be filled from the breasts of your
consolation. (Psalm) I rejoiced at the things that were said to me: we shall
go into the house of the Lord. Glory be to the Father.
The Gospel reading
will be John 6:1-15, on the multiplication of the loaves and the fishes --
symbols of the Eucharist to come in 18 days (on Maundy Thursday of Holy Week).
Note the language used in St. Matthew's account -- and in the consecration
of the Mass:
And taking the seven loaves and the fishes, and giving thanks,
he brake, and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the
And from the Mass:
Who, the day before
He suffered, took bread into His Holy and venerable hands, and having
lifted up His eyes to heaven, to Thee, God, His Almighty Father, giving
thanks to Thee, blessed it, broke it, and gave it to His
disciples, saying: Take and eat ye all of this.
And after the miracle
of the loaves and fishes, this is what happens, according to John's Gospel:
And when they were filled, he said to his disciples: Gather up the fragments
that remain, lest they be lost. They gathered up therefore, and filled twelve
baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over
and above to them that had eaten.
"Gather up the
fragments lest they be lost," He said to them. And the Twelve did, symbolizing
their future ordinations, their being given to power to feed His sheep with
His Body and Blood as foreshadowed in the miracle of the loaves and fishes.
is also known as "Mothering Sunday" because of the Epistle reading that speaks
of how not the Jews, but those who come to Christ, regardless of their ancestry,
are the inheritors of Abraham's promise:
For it is written that Abraham had two sons: the one by a bondwoman, and
the other by a free woman. But he who was of the bondwoman, was born according
to the flesh: but he of the free woman, was by promise. Which things are
said by an allegory. For these are the two testaments. The one from mount
Sina, engendering unto bondage; which is Agar: For Sina is a mountain in
Arabia, which hath affinity to that Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage
with her children. But that Jerusalem, which is above, is free: which is
our mother. For it is written: Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not: break
forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for many are the children of the
desolate, more than of her that hath a husband. Now we, brethren, as Isaac
was, are the children of promise. But as then he, that was born according
to the flesh, persecuted him that was after the spirit; so also it is now.
But what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son; for the
son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the free woman. So
then, brethren, we are not the children of the bondwoman, but of the free:
by the freedom wherewith Christ has made us free.
The old practice
of visiting the cathedral, or "mother church" of the diocese on this day
is another reason for the name. In England, natural mothers are honored today,
too, in a manner rather like the American "Mother's Day." Spring bulb flowers
(daffodils, for ex.) are given to mothers, and simnel cake is made to celebrate
the occasion (this cake has also become an Easter Cake of late, however).
The word "simnel" comes from the Latin "simila," a high grade flour:
1 cup margarine, softened
1 cup light brown sugar
1 3/4 cups self-rising flour
1 1/3 cups golden raisins
1 cup dried currants
2/3 cup candied cherries, rinsed, dried and quartered
1/4 cup candied mixed fruit peel, chopped
2 tablespoons grated lemon zest
2 teaspoons mixed spice
1 pound almond paste
2 tablespoons apricot jam
1 egg, beaten
Preheat oven to 300 degrees F. Grease and flour an 8 inch springform pan.
Line the bottom and sides of pan with greased parchment paper. In a large
bowl, cream together the margarine and brown sugar until light and fluffy.
Beat in the eggs one at a time. Beat in the flour. Stir in the golden raisins,
currants, candied cherries, mixed fruit, lemon zest and mixed spice. Pour
1/2 of batter into prepared pan.
Divide almond paste into 3 equal portions. Roll out 1/3 of the almond paste
to an 8 inch circle. Place the circle of almond paste on the cake batter
in pan. Cover with remaining cake batter. Bake in the preheated oven for
2 1/2 hours, or until evenly brown and firm to the touch. If the cake is
browning too quickly, cover with foil after an hour of baking. Let cool in
pan for 10 minutes, then turn out onto a wire rack and cool completely. Set
oven to broil. When the cake has cooled, brush the top with warmed apricot
jam. Roll out 1/3 of the almond paste into an 8 inch circle and place on
top of cake.
Divide the remaining 1/3 of almond paste into 11 pieces and roll into balls.
These represent the 12 Apostles minus Judas. Brush the almond paste on top
of cake with beaten egg. Arrange the 11 balls around the outside edge on
the top of cake. Brush the balls lightly with egg. Place cake under the broiler
for 8 to 10 minutes, or until almond paste is golden brown.
The Golden Rose
The rose vestments
on Laetare Sunday is a custom originating in the fact that, as a symbol of
joy and hope in the middle of this somber Season, popes used to carry a golden
rose in their right hand when returning from the celebration of Mass on this
day (way back in 1051, Pope Leo IX called this custom an "ancient institution.")
Originally it was natural rose, then a single golden rose of natural
size, but since the fifteenth century it has consisted of a cluster or branch
of pure gold in brilliant workmanship by famous artists. The popes bless at least
one every year, and often confer it upon churches, shrines, cities, or
distinguished persons as a token of esteem and paternal affection. (The Golden
Rose at right was given to the Shrine at Knock, Ireland)
The golden rose represents Christ in the shining splendor of His majesty,
the "flower sprung from the root of Jesse," and it is blessed with these
O God! by Whose
word and power all things have been created, by Whose will all things are
directed, we humbly beseech Thy Majesty, Who art the joy and gladness of
all the faithful, that Thou wouldst deign in Thy fatherly love to bless and
sanctify this rose, most delightful in odor and appearance, which we this
day carry in sign of spiritual joy, in order that the people consecrated
by Thee and delivered from the yoke of Babylonian slavery through the favor
of Thine only-begotten Son, Who is the glory and exultation of the people
of Israel and of that Jerusalem which is our Heavenly mother, may with sincere
hearts show forth their joy. Wherefore, O Lord, on this day, when the Church
exults in Thy name and manifests her joy by this sign, confer upon us through
her true and perfect joy and accepting her devotion of today; do Thou remit
sin, strengthen faith, increase piety, protect her in Thy mercy, drive away
all things adverse to her and make her ways safe and prosperous, so that
Thy Church, as the fruit of good works, may unite in giving forth the perfume
of the ointment of that flower sprung from the root of Jesse and which is
the mystical flower of the field and lily of the valleys, and remain happy
without end in eternal glory together with all the saints.
After the rose is blessed, the Pope incenses musk and balsam and then places them inside the cup of the largest rose. Then the entire rose is incensed and sprinkled with holy water.
Note: you can remember
to differentiate between Advent's Gaudete Sunday and Lent's Laetare Sunday
-- the two "rose vestment" Sundays -- by remembering that Laetare
Sunday comes in Lent, both of which begin with the letter "L."